Sperm donation is required by single women/lesbian couples, or for example, when the female partner is fertile but the male partner has severe abnormalities in the semen parameters.
These abnormalities include both obstructive and non-obstructive absence of sperm (azoospermia), decreased sperm count (oligospermia) or other sperm or seminal fluid abnormalities are also indications for donor insemination. It is also indicated when the male has ejaculatory dysfunction or when female is Rh-sensitized and the male partner is Rh-positive. Additionally couples where the male partner is at risk of passing a genetically inherited disease to children.
Sperm donation is used with artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. Donor insemination cycles use frozen and quarantined sperm. It is recommended that sperm be quarantined for at list six months before being released for use.
Donor Selection and Screening
You may be offered sperm held by the clinic or you can choose anonymous donor sperm from a sperm bank or a known donor. All prospective sperm donors should be healthy men with no history of mental disorders or genetic, inherited or sexually transmitted diseases. A sperm donor can be matched with your requested characteristics (physical appearance, IQ level, ethnicity, blood group, etc), or several agencies also offer known donors, where pictures can be viewed and future contact may be permitted.
Prospective donors undergo a physical examination with screening for visible physical abnormalities, as well as testing for sexually transmitted disease and routine blood analyses should be performed. Ethnically based genetic testing is standard in most sperm banks, however no screening program can be totally guaranteed.
All donor sperm whether known or anonymous should be frozen and stored for a minimum period of six months so that a retesting for infectious diseases can be carried out on the donor before the sperm is used. Donor sperm is analysed for motility and count to ensure successful fertilization.